Monday, September 23, 2019


In these early days, nursing was characterized by two aims: Care of the sick and promotion of health. These were accomplished with little or no direction from medicine.
The nursing process functions as a systematic guide to client-centered care with 5 sequential steps. These are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Assessment. Assessment is the first step and involves critical thinking skills and data collection; subjective and objective.
In caring for the sick, nurses concentrated on providing and modifying the environment so that health could be restored. In promoting health nurses were primarily concerned with teaching women on how to create an environment that is conducive to healthy living for their families, thereby reducing the risk for illness.
As the practice of modern medicine began to take shape, the medicine disease oriented model of health care emerged and this model with its emphasis on illness/disease provided the frame work of nursing care as well. Physicians gain control of hospital and thereby gained control of nursing practice in hospital settings. Independently, nursing activities such as modifying the environment and giving emotional support remained a past of carrying out medical orders prescribed by physicians to cure disease. The practice focused on the action of nurses and these action were based on neither necessarily structure deliberate, based on scientific evidence nor was individualized to the consumers of nursing care. This result in lack of full satisfaction of consumers’ need. Nwonu, E.I. (2007).
Today, clients know more about their body, their mental and physical health than they did. In earlier eras, they are also beginning to assume active and decision-making role in seeking and accepting health care services. They are making it known that they would and have a right to be treated as whole human beings and not a disease entity.
On the side of health care delivery knowledge explosion brought about a lot of specialization and development of numerous healths’ discipline.
In one sense, the multi disciplinary approach to health care is desirable because ideally, it ensures that the carious needs of the client will be met on the other hand as more and more separate discipline becomes involved with each treatment, health care becomes fragmented service were duplicated and client felt divided into bits and pieces and this brought about a lot of dis-satisfaction of the client.
In the face of all these, nursing had to change to be able to satisfy the consumers of nursing. It had to struggle to assume its place as an independent profession that is accountable to the consumers of health care. It had to aim at helping people to care and decision making about health. Nursing thus became concerned with their clients total needs and made concerned effort to develop a more system and rational pattern for the practice of nursing.
Nursing process is the fruit of all these efforts and it has been adopted as the frame and reference of nursing practice. Kozier, B.etal.(2008)

Click to Download

Friday, September 6, 2019


Conflict is an inevitable part of or process of social life. Necessarily, conflict involves two or more parties that have, or perceive incompatibility in either interests/values, or in strategy of achieving the ends desired.  Certainly, conflict is a strain in a relationship that goes with emotion. The higher the emotion the higher the tendency of an evolving conflict intensity. Conflict graduates in phases-early conflict indicators, conflict resistance, explosive or exhaustive conflict, terrorism.
Conflict is perceived in most parts of the world, including Nigeria as something abnormal, dysfunctional and therefore detestable. Yet conflict is a fact of life and could be a precursor of positive change. Every plural society is bound to experience one form of conflict or the other. What makes a society an ideal polity is the extent to which the conflicting interests and needs in a society are constructively managed so that violence does not threaten its continued existence. Conflict challenges the rational man to think of alternative ways of meeting contesting human needs and interest. What is to be emphasized therefore is not conflict per se but the ways man responds to it. Conflict need not follow a negative course if constructively handled, it can become an agent of growth and development for all parties. To this extent, conflict is not to be demonized but confronted with efficient procedures for cooperative problem-solving. Conflict is a struggle over values and claims to scarce status. Power and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals. Conflict is a normal process of interaction particularly in complex societies in which resources are usually scarce. Conflict is seen as the simultaneous occurrence of two or more mutually antagonistic impulses or motives.
Conflict occurs when there is a sharp disagreement or clash for instance, between divergent ideas, interests or people and nations. Conflict is universal yet distinct in every culture. It is common to all persons yet experienced by every individual. It is a visible sign of human energy and often the result of competitive striving for the same goals, rights and resources. Most of the times, we assume and take for granted that we share a single reality with others, but this is not always the case. Conflict in essence is the construction of a special type of reality. It may be viewed as occurring along cognitive (perception), emotional (feeling) and behavioral (action) dimensions. This three dimensional perspective can help us understand the complexities of conflict and why a conflict sometimes seems to proceed in contradictory directiona.
There are many ways to resolve conflicts. These are by surrendering, running away, overpowering the opponent with violence, filing a lawsuit etc. Primarily, conflict can be resolved using two basic approached namely; peaceful negotiation or arbitration and force. Resolving a conflict protracted and difficult to manage. Most societies therefore, prefer resolution to open combat. In this respect, all societies have a framework of laid-down conventions or rules by which conflicts are resolved.


Childhood sexual abuse happens when any person exploits a child in any activity intended to lead to the sexual arousal or other forms of gratification of that person or any other person(s) including organized networks.
This definition holds whether or not there has been genital contact and whether or not the child is said to have initiated or consented to the behaviour.
Rape is often committed by someone known to and trusted by the child, such as fathers, step-fathers, other family members or friends rather than strangers
  • Touching children sexually
  • Showing them pornography
  • Talking to them in a sexual explicit way
  • Masturbating or forcing them to have sexual intercourse
This physical and emotional abuse involves misuse of power and serious very degrading assault which breaches the personal boundaries to which all children are entitled. Many children do not tell anyone about the abuse
- Study shows that 72% of sexually abused children do not tell anyone
about the abuse at the time. 27% told someone later, 31% still had not
told anyone about their experience (s) by early adulthood.


The study was carried out in order to assess the effect of cultural practices on umbilical cord care in institute of child health Banzazzau. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of awareness been rendered by child health services in prevention and management of patients with cerebral spinal meningitis and also to find out the trends in the utilization services and its acceptance by residents living within the selected local Government Areas in Kaduna State the research further find out the Socio-Econoic factors that could influence effective utilization of child health services. A descriptive survey research design was used in carrying out the research. A total of 100 questionnaire were distributed to the respondent and all were retrieved. The data collected were analyzed and presented using frequency distribution tables and simple percentages.  The findings revealed the respondents have general knowledge about meningitis. The people are aware of the possible causes of meningitis. Majority of them said community gathering and overcrowded environment are contributory factors to meningitis problem also respondents agreed that vaccination and hospital attendance are major source of managing the disease. It was also clear that spiritual assistance were sought for by sick persons.

Table of Content
Title Page   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -i
Approval Page -  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -ii
Dedication -                -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -iii
Declaration -               -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -iv
Acknowledgement -     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -v
Abstract     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -vii
Table of Content  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       viii
Chapter One: Introduction
1.1    Background of the Study      ­­­-       -       -       -       -       -       -1
1.2    Statement of the Problem     -       -       -       -       -       -       -3
1.3    Purpose of the Study   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -6
1.4    Research Questions      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -7
1.5    Research hypothesis    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -7
1.6    Significance of the Study      -       -       -       -       -       -       -8
1.7    Scope of the Study      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -9
1.8    Delimitation of the Study      -       -       -       -       -       -       -10
1.9    Limitations of the Study        -       -       -       -       -       -       -10
1.10  Operational Definition of Terms      -       -       -       -       -       -10
Chapter Two: Literature Review
2.0    Conceptual Framework         -       -       -       -       -       -       12
2.1    Types of Meningitis      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       15
2.2    The Nature and Epidemiology of Meningitis      -       -       -       17
2.3    Symptoms and Complications of Meningitis      -       -       -       18
2.4    Health Determinants and Risk Factors of Meningits    -       -       19
2.5    The meningitis Belt of Africa  -       -       -               -       -       19
2.6    Theoretical Framework -       -       -       -       -       -       -       21
2.7    Empirical Studies on Meningitis Concerns         -       -       -       22
Chapter Three: Methodology
3.1    Research Methods       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       28
3.2    Research Design  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       28
33     Study Locale       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       28
3.4    Target Population        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       29
3.5    Sample and Sampling Techniques- -               -       -       -       29
3.5    Instrument Used for Data Collection       -       -       -       -       30
3.6    Reliability/Validity of Instrument     -       -       -       -       -       30
3.7    Data Analysis      -       -               -       -       -       -       -       30
Chapter Four: Results and Discussion
4.1    Results and Discussion  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       31
4.2    Summary of Results     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       34
4.3    Discussion  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       40

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.0    Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations -       -       -       42
5.1    Summary   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       42
5.2    Conclusions -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       43
5.3    Recommendations       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       44
References -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       47
Appendix    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       50
 Click to Download


  • Background to the study:
The hospital is not just only a place where sick people recover from their illness, but also where the healthy get infected (David OM, 2010). Workplace exposure and hazards could cause devastating effects on health and quality of life (OguntonaTS,2010). There are many different types of accidental injuries in the health industry but needle stick injury remains the commonest of all (Oguntona TS et al., 2010; Ofili AN,2004). Occupational exposure to the body body fluid can result from percutaneous injury or sharps injury, mucocutaneous injury (splash of blood or other body fluids into the eyes, nose or mouth or body contact with non-intact skin(Vaz K, McGrowder eet al., 2010);  which can all cause substantial health consequences and psychological stress for health care workers and their loved ones (Rampal L, 2010).
Health care workers such as nurses, medical doctors, laboratory staff and aids who work in the hospitals, clinics and other health care settings are frequently exposed to infectious diseases. Some of these infectious diseases have no available vaccination or cure; consequently these blood borne infections are a major cause of anxiety for health care workers (Honda M, 2011). Health care workers are at risk of exposure to diseases like  hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HVC), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood borne disease as they are in direct contact with patient).
Globally, about three million, health care workers experience percutaneous exposure to blood borne pathogens each year with two million of these exposed to HBV, 0.9 million to HCV and 170,000 to HIV. These injuries may result in  15,000 HCV, 70,000 HBV and 1000 to HIV cases with more than 90% of these infections occurring in developing countries (Adedeji OO,2010).
The fact that blood and other fluids from patients are becoming increasingly hazardous to those who provide care for them has become of great concern to health professionals the world over as workers in developing countries account for the highest rate of needle stick injuries (Vaz K, 2010;  Oguntona TS, 2010).

Needle stick injury is the non-intentional puncture of the skin caused by an injection needle while sharp injuries are caused by puncture of the skin by a sharp object or instrument (Akeem BO et al., 2011). Health care workers especially the nursing staffs are prone to needle stick injuries which may result in blood borne infections with  the discovery of HIV and Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), the medical community began to recognize widely the dangers of serious illnesses spreading through contact with contaminated blood and body fluids (Jawaid R,2009). It is now recognized that more infection control precautions are needed as all body fluids are potentially infections (Okaro AO, 2010).
It is on this background knowledge and practice of standard precautions is thus essential for all healthcare workers and people in other at risk occupations.
Standard Precautions are defined as “group of infection prevention practices that apply to all patients, regardless of suspected or confirmed diagnosis or presumed infection status”. (CDC,2012). These precautions are the basic level of infection control precautions which are to be used, as a level of precautions (CDC, 2007; WHO, 2007). The fact is that “standard precautions” are recommended when delivering the care to all patients, regardless of their presumed infection status. It is also recommended when handling equipment and devices that are contaminated or suspected of contamination, and in situations of contact risk with blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions, without considering the presence or absence of visible blood and skin with solution of continuity and mucous tissues. They included precautions against agents that are transmitted by the following routes of transmission: air-borne, droplet and contact routes (CDC, 2007; Vaz et al., 2010). Body fluid to be treated with standard precautions are blood, cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, urine, semen, vaginal secretions, saliva and any other fluids from tissues, organs, non-intact skin and mucous membrane (Kalu FTU, 2012).
The aim of standard precautions is to protect both the health worker from being infected and the uninfected patient from getting infected by the health worker (Kalu FTU, et al,. 2012) Under standard precautions principles, blood and certain body fluids of all patients are considered potentially infectious of blood borne pathogens for HIV, HBV and other blood borne pathogens (Johnson OE, 2012).
Unfortunately, the knowledge, understanding and practice of standard precautions among health care workers in general is poor (add2). The proper clinical application of universal precautions

are therefore important for every healthcare professional that provides dental, medical, nursing and other patient care (Nduka I,2012).
In addition, the aim of standard precautions includes the prevention and /or reduction of transmission of Hospital Acquired Infection (HAI), and, at the same time, protection of health care workers from sharp injuries. These aims can be achieved by the application of standard precautions measures which consist of the following elements; hand hygiene, personal protective equipment (gloves, gown, goggle, facemasks, head protection, foot protection and wearing face shields) and prevention of sharp injuries (CDC, 2007; WHO, 2007).
Click to Download


According to the World Bank (2008). Nurses and midwives can provide majority of care, include in the basic delivery packages of clinical services. Midwives have a broad and fundamental role to play, the impact of their work on the quality efficiency and effectiveness of care which is provided 24hour a day, and 365days a year. Emerging to be aware of the quality and effectiveness of their interventions. Confident and competent in selection prioritization of intervention, especially those to be documented to meet the requirement of quality improvements programmes. The study aim at finding out the Assessment of factors affecting services delivery by midwives in clinical setting of General Hospital Funtua. This was guided by the following objective of the study such as assessing the quality sustainability and accessibility of services delivery, identify factors affecting services delivery and possible ways of improving the services delivery, it’s hope that the study will be beneficial to the government, institution of General Hospital Funtua, midwives and patient. The researcher adopt a survey design with a target population of 50 respondent was used for the analysis. The finding of study include lacking in the following area. Perinatal audit meeting, lack of equipment, clinical supervision, and motivation of staff among others. In conclusion it is evidence that, all the above needs to be employed so as to improve the midwives services delivery in clinical areas and the patient received adequate care. At the end there will be reduced maternal mortality and the sectors is uplifted.

Cover page -----------------------------------------------------------------i
Title page ----------------------------------------------------------------- ii
Certificate ---------------------------------------------------------------- iii
Abstract ------------------------------------------------------------------ iv
Dedication ---------------------------------------------------------------- v
Acknowledgement -----------------------------------------------------   vi
Table of content ------------------------------------------------------vii-ix
List of table ---------------------------------------------------------------x
  • Background of the study-----------------------------------------------1
  • Statement of problem--------------------------------------------------3
  • Objective of the study--------------------------------------------------4
  • Research question-----------------------------------------------------5
  • Significance of the study----------------------------------------------5
  • Delimitation/scope of the study---------------------------------------6
  • Definition of operational term-----------------------------------------6

2.0 Introduction------------------------------------------------------------7
2.1 Literature Review------------------------------------------------------7
2.2 Quality sustainability and accessibility of services delivery by midwives------10
2.3 Factors affecting services delivery by midwives-------------------15
2.4 Ways of improving services delivery-------------------------------16
2.5 Theoretical framework----------------------------------------------19
3.0 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------24
3.1 Research Design----------------------------------------------------25
3.2 Research setting----------------------------------------------------25
3.3 Target population---------------------------------------------------25
3.4 Instrument for data collection-------------------------------------25
3.5 Validity of the instrument------------------------------------------25
3.6 Reliability of the instrument---------------------------------------26
3.7 Method of data collection------------------------------------------26
3.8 Method of data Analysis-------------------------------------------26
3.9 Ethical consideration. ---------------------------------------------26
4.0 Introduction-------------------------------------------------------28
4.1 Discussing of finding---------------------------------------------29
4.2 Answering of Research question-------------------------------------30
5.0 Introduction----------------------------------------------------------35
5.1 Discussing of finding-------------------------------------------------35
5.2 Implication to Midwifery Practice------------------------------------38
5.3 Summary-------------------------------------------------------------39
5.4 Conclusion------------------------------------------------------------39
5.5 Recommendation-----------------------------------------------------40
5.6 Suggestion for further study----------------------------------------40
Appendix letter of permission.
Table 4.1: Frequency distribution table of socio-demographic data of the respondents
Table 4.2: Quality sustainability and accessibility of services delivery by midwives in clinical setting.
Table 4.3: Factors effecting services delivery by midwives in clinical setting.
Table 4.4: To what extent do they implement the midwifery services in clinical setting.
Table 4.5: Ways to improve services delivery by midwives in clinical setting.
Click to Download


This study was carried out to determine assess the knowledge of pregnant women on the effect of self-medication in university of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, Abuja. The specific objectives of the study were to identify the factors responsible for self-medication, the effect of self-medication and suggest ways in which self-medication can be reduced. A descriptive research design was adapted for the study. A sample size of two Hundred (200) respondents were drawn from a target population of four Hundred (400) women using Tero Yamane Formula for sample size determination. Purposive sampling technique was employed to reach the respondents. Data was obtained using questionnenires  which serve as an interview guide. Data generated were analyzed using sample descriptive dada analysis. Findings of the study revealed that: the reason why women fall victim of self-medication is mainly due to financial constraint, the most occurring adverse effect of the drugs was abortion/miscarriage. It was also observed that there is high level of knowledge of women on the effect of self-medication. but despite that, the rate of self-medication is still on the high side. Majority of women also agreed that Health Education is still the way forward. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that  individuals, health sectors, government and Non-Governmental organization (NGOs) should carry out campaign on the effect of self-medication and the preventive strategies to curtail the incidence of self-medication in UATH and Nigeria at large.
Tittle page -------------------------------------------------------
Certification -------------------------------------------------------
Abstract -------------------------------------------------------
Acknowledgement -------------------------------------------------------
Table of content -------------------------------------------------------
List of table -------------------------------------------------------
1.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------
1.1 Background of the study -------------------------------------------------------
1.2 Statement of problem -------------------------------------------------------
1.3 Objectives of the study -------------------------------------------------------
1.4 Research question -------------------------------------------------------
1.5 Significance of study -------------------------------------------------------
1.6 Scope of study -------------------------------------------------------
1.7 operational Definition of Terms -------------------------------------------------------
2.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------
2.1 Overview of self-medication -------------------------------------------------------
2.2 Pregnancy and it’s stage -------------------------------------------------------

2.3 Drugs harmful to unborn child at pregnancy -------------------------------------------------------
2.4 knowledge of pregnant women of effect of self-medication -------------------------------------------------------
2.5 Side effect of drugs during pregnancy -------------------------------------------------------
2.6 Factors responsible for self-medication -------------------------------------------------------
2.7 Ways to eradicate/reduce self-medication -------------------------------------------------------
2.8 Empirical studies -------------------------------------------------------
2.9 Theoretical framework and it’s application -------------------------------------------------------

3.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------
3.1 Research Design -------------------------------------------------------
3.2 Research setting -------------------------------------------------------
3.3 Target population -------------------------------------------------------
3.4 Sample size and sampling Teaching -------------------------------------------------------
3.5 Instruments for data collection -------------------------------------------------------
3.6 validity and Reliability of instrument -------------------------------------------------------
3.7 Method of data collection -------------------------------------------------------
3.8 method of data analysis -------------------------------------------------------
3.9 Ethical consideration -------------------------------------------------------
Data presentation -------------------------------------------------------
5.0 Introduction -------------------------------------------------------
5.1 Discussion of finding -------------------------------------------------------
5.2 Implication of study to nursing -------------------------------------------------------
5.3 Summary -------------------------------------------------------
5.4 Conclusion -------------------------------------------------------
5.5 Limitation of the study -------------------------------------------------------
5.6 Recommendation/suggestion for further studies ------------------------------------------------------
References -------------------------------------------------------
Appendix i -------------------------------------------------------
Appendix ii -------------------------------------------------------
Appendix iii -------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.1 percentage distribution on Demographic data --------------------------------------------------
Table 4.2 percentage distribution on knowledge of self-medication -----------------------------------
Table 4.3 percentage distribution Drug usage during pregnancy ----------------------------------------
Table 4.4 percentage distribution on Type of drug use ---------------------------------------------------
Table 4.5 percentage distribution on Source of drug ------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.6 percentage distribution on Knowledge on effect of SM --------------------------------------
Table 4.7 percentage distribution on Effect of self-medication ------------------------------------------
Table 4.8 percentage distribution on Reasons for -------------------------------------------------------
Table 4.9 percentage distribution on ways to reduce self-medication ----------------------------------
 Click to Download



This research examines the role of government in curbing financial malpractices in Nigeria public sector. Efforts made in the past to curtail the problem, and present experiments to eradicate the scourges from our public sector of Nigeria economy are also examined. In other words, whenever and wherever a party performs a service or obligation in exchange for some gratification or refuses to perform his duty as a result of conferment of some benefits or promise of same, he is said to be corrupt. This dissertation is broken into five chapters. The major objectives of this research are to investigate and educate about the various forms of financial malpractices, causes, dangers, signal and ways of preventing financial malpractices and to discuss some of the role of the Government in curbing financial malpractices in the Nigeria public sector. The methodology explains scientific and methodological nature, it’s scientific in that it follow a well defined laid down principles and makes use of scientific approach to studying using primary and secondary data, Primary sources such as relevant statutes and legislations, judicial decisions and government publications and secondary sources such as opinions of writers, textbooks, newspaper articles and seminar papers. And finally, with discussion of results and curbing financial malpractices in Nigeria, with Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations we can see from this research project that the efforts and the impact Government is making to curb financial malpractices is having positive and is returning sanity to our public sector, enthroning the virtues of honesty, transparency and accountability in Nigeria.


TITLE                                                                                    PAGES
Title page                                                                                    i
Declaration/ Certification                                                         ii
Dedication                                                                                  iii
Acknowledgement                                                                      iv
Abstract                                                                                     v
Table of Contents                                                                     vii - viii

  • General Introduction/Background to the Study
1.1       Statement of the Problem
1.2       Research Questions
1.3       Objective of the Study
1.4       Scope of the Study
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Research Hypothesis
1.7       Research Methodology
1.8       Definition of Terms

  • Literature Review
2.1       Definition of Terms
2.2       Constitutional Framework to Tackle Financial
2.3       The Effect of Financial Malpractices in the Country

  • Research Design and Methodology
3.1       Sampling Frame of the Study
3.2       Sampling Techniques
3.3       Method of Data Collection
3.4       Limitation of the Methodology

  • Data Collection and Analysis
4.1       Data Presentation and Interpretation
4.2       Discussion of Results
4.3       Curbing Financial Malpractices in Nigeria
4.4       Implication of Findings

  • Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Recommendation



International economics is concerned with the effects upon economic activity from international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the international institutes that affect them. It seeks to explain the patterns and consequences of transactions and interactions between the inhabitants of different countries, including trade, investment and migration.
International economics is a field of study which assesses the implications of international trade in goods and services and international investment. There are two broad sub-fields within international economics: international trade and international finance.
  • International trade - studies goods and services flows across international boundaries form supply-and-demand factors, economic integration, international factor movements and policy variables such as tariff rates and trade quotas.
  • International finance – studies the flow of across international financial markets and the effects of these movements on exchange rates.
  • International monetary economics & international macro economics – study the flows of money across boundaries and the resulting effects on their economics as a whole.
  • International political economy, a sub-category of international relations, studies issues and impacts from for example, international sanctions; national security and economic nationalism; and international agreements and observance.
The new International Economic Order (NIEO) was a set of proposals put forward during the 1970s by some developing countries through the United Nations Conference on trade and development to promote their interest by improving their terms of trade, increasing development assistance, developed-country tariff reductions and other means. It was meant to be revision of the international economic system in favour of the third world countries, replacing the Bretton Woods system, which had created it-especially the United States.
Click to Download



1.0                   Introduction

There is no globally agreed definition of a child with respect to age range, it is culturally and contextually determined and varies from place to place and circumstances, however, for the purpose of this work, the WHO and UN Convention of Right of Child definition is adopted, consequently, a child is defined as anyone below the age of 18years (WHO, UN Convention on Child Right).  Because of the adventurous and curious orientation of this age group, with the attendant poor judgment on avoidance of dangers and risky behaviors and inexperience, they are exposed to injuries which are largely accidental but potentially detrimental to their wellbeing.  The consequences may range from fatalities, permanent scars, disabilities, hospitalizations and sometimes mild outcomes.  Related to the above is the strain upon families who may be placed in mournful state in case of death, financial cost of hospitalization, the burden of caring for a child who has become permanently disabled as a result of an injury can as well tremendously weigh down a family.  These events undoubtedly have social and physical outcomes which may impact the growth and development of the child, which this research aims to investigate.

1.1     Background of the Study

The adventurous and inquisitive nature of children, poor judgment and inexperience combine potentially expose them to accidental or unintentional injuries, these injuries revolve around burns, falls, drowning, suffocation, poison and traffic related injuries (WHO, 2008); sometimes these events may result from the failures of care givers such as mothers lying on infants and suffocating them to death, exposing children to substances which are potentially poisonous by keeping them within their reach and leaving them to move around to dangerous environments like roads unattended .   This may bring about consequences ranging from hospitalizations, permanent disabilities and in some extreme cases deaths, the result is that the child, parents/care givers and the entire society are negatively impacted; while the child may suffer delay in achieving developmental and growth milestones, the parents and care givers may suffers in terms of financial cost and time spent caring for a hospitalized child or a permanently disabled one.  In the event of death, the family – nuclear and extended is traumatized by lost of a loved one.
Many young people who survive major traumas arising from AIs are left with ongoing disabilities, with a major impact on their own lives as well as on the lives of their families. These disabilities may be physical, mental or psychological. Some of the problems encountered in the years following injury include an inability to attend school, find suitable work or engage in an active social life. There are also other more basic problems such as having to cope with continued pain. Support for these young people most often falls on their close family and friends (WHO, UNICEF, 2008).  There is also a unique social aspects of discriminations against the physically disabled either in school or the work place - there is no special provisions for the physically challenged in schools, the employers on the other hand are subtly reluctant to engage the physically or otherwise disabled in any meaningful employment even when they (disabled) acquire the right education and skills.
However, there are arguably very few studies reporting the social and physical impact of Accidental Injuries (AIs) also referred to as Unintentional Injuries (UIs) on the growth and development of children. Few of these studies that exist are in other parts of the world and may not adequately address our local circumstances because of variations in cultures and other underlying causative factors that may be peculiar to our realm.  It is argued that socio-economic factors play a key role in mitigating or aggravating the prevalence of AIs with their attendant consequences depending on their status.  (CDC, NCIPC, 2012, Robinson, Moss and Leckning, 2016) reports that working mothers especially, many times abdicate their  responsibilities of caring for their children to others, thus further expanding the window for AIs to take place. Lower maternal age put in simpler terms - inexperience mothers may also place their child (ren) at the risk of AIs. These factors and many others accounts for the increasing rate of AIs especially as reported in the Pediatrics’ Emergency Unit of DASH, Lafia.  This is not unique to the facility above but has been a trend and must be given the desired priority as it is gradually but steadily becoming a global public health issue.

1.2     Statement of Problem

Globally,  there is an increase in the rate of occurrence of AIs, statistics abound that point to the fact that Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have the highest rate of 53.1%, this may be more given the fact that a lot of these cases may go unreported to medical facilities and hence data concerning them may be largely unavailable.  Much as many of these injuries are preventable, they have received low attention on the part of virtually all stakeholders despite their devastating consequences on the child, family and society at large.  The (WHO, 2008) reports that every day around the world the lives of more than 2000 families are torn apart by the loss of a child to an unintentional injury or so-called “accident” that could have been prevented. The grief that these families suffer – mothers, fathers, siblings, grandparents and friends – is immeasurable and often impacts entire communities. Such tragedy can change lives irrevocably.  Equally important is those children who do not die as a result of these AIs but sustain injuries which may socially or physically negatively impact them and/or their families. These issues define the focus of this work; consequently, the following section states the objectives of the research as well as raise questions which the research intends to answer.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the social and physical impact of accidental injuries on the growth and development of children.
  2. To uncover strategies capable of reducing the impact of accidental injuries on the growth and development of children.
  • To determine the factors that are capable of potentially undermining the success of preventive strategy
  1. To reduce the social and physical impacts associated with accidental injuries.